It’s rather strange to think about it, but I suppose I have been living through something of a revolution in hot drinks in the UK. Traditionally, we are considered to be a nation of tea drinkers, but now on my way to work, I suspect that the majority of travel mugs clutched by my fellow commuters contain a more stimulating coffee instead. In 2008, the UK started to import more tonnes of coffee (green and roasted) than tea. Of course, you get more cups out of a kilo of tea than you do out of a kilo of coffee, but the upward trend for coffee importation continues (FAOSTAT).
It used to be that the nearest my coffee drinking came to any kind of ceremony was if I happened to be the lucky person who got to pop the seal on a new jar of instant. Now, however, even if there isn’t a gadget in the kitchen, then there’s ususally a coffee shop nearby to provide you with your morning ritual and your perfect brew. In 17th and 18th century London and Oxford, coffeehouses were also the place for men to go and read the news, make financial deals, reason about academic subjects and perhaps even discuss something a little seditious. By the end of the 18th century, these coffeehouses had all but disappeared. Many factors have been suggested for their decline, including that printed news was easier to come by, and the development of gentleman’s clubs. Tea drinking was on on the rise as it became fashionable at court, as women could participate in a way that they couldn’t in coffeehouses, and of course, through the promotional of the British East India Company’s trading interests in tea from China and particularly from India. Names such as Assam, Darjeeling, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Kangra and Niligri became familiar in the UK through the tea gardens established there by the British in the 19th century.
Easier to prepare, tea remained the hot drink of choice in the UK for about two centuries providing warmth, comfort and calories (with milk and sugar) with every cup. Many countries favour either tea or coffee at the expense of the other, and in the UK a 2012 YouGov poll still showed more people still rate a cuppa as their favourite hot drink (52% tea/ 35% coffee). The coffee shop sector is one of the strongest businesses in the UK economy, turning over £9.6 billion in 2017. So when you next get to the counter of a coffee shop, what will it be – coffee or tea?
David Grigg (2002). The Worlds of Tea and Coffee: Patterns of consumption. GeoJournal 57; 283-294
Guest blog by: Sophie Mogg
Cinnamon is a spice that we have all had the opportunity to try, whether in fancy coffees, liqueurs or delicious buns. Whilst the “true” cinnamon species is Cinnamomum verum, the most common source of cinnamon is Cinnamomum cassia. Both species originate in Asia, with C. verum being native to Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) and C. cassia originating in southern China. In order to distinguish the cinnamon produced by the two species in the spice trade, cinnamon refers to C. verum whilst cassia refers to C. cassia. This is because, C. verum is more expensive of the two due to its sweeter taste and aroma as less than 30% of cinnamon exports come from Sri Lanka.
Cinnamon has been traded for many thousands of years, with the imports into Egypt reported as early as 2000 BCE so it is no surprise that there are countless tales and historical events that surround this spice. From Sieur de Joinville believing cinnamon was fished from the Nile at the end of the world and Herodotus writing about mystical giant birds (such as a phoenix) that used cinnamon sticks to build their nests, the history of cinnamon is rich in legends of its origin as it wasn’t until 1270 that it was mentioned the spice grew in Sri Lanka. However as sweet as this spice may be it also appears to have a bloody history. Aside from the countless wars raged over the right to trade cinnamon, it was also used on the funeral pyre of Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Nero, in 65 AD. It is said that he burned over a years supply as recompense for the part he played in her death.
There are a total of 5 species (C. burmannii, C. cassia, C. citriodorum, C. loureiroi and C. verum) that produce cinnamon however C. verum and C. cassia are where the majority of international commerce is sourced from. Production of cinnamon is fairly straight forward albeit time-consuming. The outer bark of the tree is shaved off exposing the inner bark which is the cinnamon layer. This inner bark is also shaved off and left to dry, naturally curling as it does. By comparison the cinnamon of C. verum has a more delicate flavour than that of C. cassia as well as having thinner bark that is more easy to crush and produces a much more smooth texture.
Cinnamon is prominent in the practice of Ayurveda medicine as well as traditional Chinese medicine, being one of the 50 fundamental herbs. Traditionally it has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments from digestive problems, respiratory problems, arthritis and infections. In traditional Chinese medicine it is believed that cinnamon is able to treat these ailments through it’s ability to balance the Yin and Wei as well being a counterflow for Qi. These terms are aptly explained here for those who are interested. While there is little scientific evidence for the treatment of digestive and respiratory disorders, cinnamon does appear to possess antibacterial, antifungal and antimicrobial properties which may help to fight infections although at this moment in time it is inconclusive in studies trialled on humans. Cinnamon produced from C. cassia coumarin, which thins the blood, can be toxic to the liver in high concentrations so it is advised that only a few grams per day be consumed.
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Guest blog by: Sophie Mogg
Lycium chinese, and its close relative Lycium barbarum, are both native to China although typically found to the Southern and Northern regions respectively. Part of the Solanaceae (Nightshade) family, they are also related to tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, chili peppers, tobacco and of course belladonna. Both L. chinese and L. barbarum produces the goji berry, or among English folk commonly known as the wolfberry believed to be derived from the resemblance between Lycium and the greek “lycos” meaning wolf. Both species are decidious woody perennials that typically reach 1-3M tall however L. barbarum is taller than L. chinense. In May through to August lavendar-pink to light purple flowers are produced with the sepal eventually bursting as a result of the growing berry which matures between August and October. The berry itself is a distinctive orange-red and grape-like in shape.
In Asia, premium quality goji berries known as “red diamonds” are produced in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of North-Central China where for over 700 years goji berries have been cultivated in the floodplains of the yellow river. This area alone accounts for over 45% of the goji berry production in China and is the only area in which practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine will source their goji berries as a result of their superior quality. The goji berry has a long history in Chinese medicine, first being mentioned in the Book of Songs, detailing poetry from the 11th to 7th century BC. Throughout different dynasties master alchemists devised treatments centering around the goji berry in order to improve eyesight, retain youthfulness and treating infertility. However it must be noted that because of the goji berry being high in antioxidants those on blood-thinning medication such as Warfarin are advised not to consume the berries.
As a result of their long standing history in Chinese medicine and their nutritional quality Goji berries have been nicknamed the “superfruit”. Many studies have linked the berries being high in antioxidants, vitamin A and complex starches to helping reduce fatigue, improve skin condition and night vision as well as age-related diseases such as Alzheimers. However, there has been little evidence to prove these claims and the evidence that is available is of poor quality.
In the 21st century the goji berry is incorporated in to many products such as breakfast biscuits, cereals, yogurt based products as well as many fruit juices. Traditionally the Chinese would consume sun-drief berries with a wide range of food such as rice congee, tonic soups, chicken and pork. Goji berries would also be boiled alongside Chrysanthemums or tea leaves from Camellia sinensis as a form of herbal tea. How would you like your berries?
I hope you have enjoyed reading about Lycium chinense and Lycium barbarum. Please complete the poll below to tell me more about what you would like to see more of.
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I know you’re thinking “hasn’t she already covered tea?” and yes you’re correct. I have. However, Camellia sinensis (and all of the wonderful varieties of said species) is not the only plant that tea can be made from. In a more recent blog post you have seen that tea can be made from winter green (Gaultheria procumbens) and the same can be said for a lot of plants. Today I will be venturing into the world of Chrysanthemums – Chrysanthemum indicum and Chrysanthemum morifolium to be exact.
C. indicum is a perennial that grows to roughly 100cm tall and is native to China. Chrysanthemum originates from the greek “chryos” and “anthos” translating to golden flower. C. indicum lives up to the name and typically produces a beautiful array of small yellow flowers that flower from August through to October however a multitude of colours are available amongst varieties. One particular variety, C.indicum var. edule (Kitam), is grown and cultivated as a vegetable in China. C. indicum is also one of the main parents of C. morifolium. C. morifolium is less cold hardy than its parental species, often requiring to be stored in greenhouses in Britain when during the cooler weather. However C.morifolium is far larger than its parental species and so is often favoured as a garden ornamental plant. In 1630 over 500 cultivars were listed and in the centuries since numbers have continued to rise generating plants that range from 30 – 120cm tall, with large blooms again in a range of colours.
Aside from being beautiful garden plants Chrysanthemums have also been used in Chinese medicine dating back to 475 -221 BCE and the production of tea. The leaves from both species can be used to brew tea, with cultivars of C. morifolium developed so that leaves are less bitter. The flowers, specifically the petals, of C. morifolium can also be brewed to produce a delicately sweet flavoured tea that is also very beautiful to look at. The tea itself is said to help improve vision by soothing sore eyes and headaches as well as reducing infection and inflammation. Chrysanthemums are said to have antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and so flowers would often be collected in Autumn and dried so that they could be used later as an infusion. Chrysanthemum tea is also recommended as an alternative to tea from Camellia sinensis for reducing blood pressure.
Flower heads and leaves can also be used in a variety of dishes. Leaves can be battered and turned into fritters and the petals can be pickled or served with soy sauce alongside tofu and salad. Why not try some Chrysanthemum tea or a sprinkling of petals in your salad next time you’re out in the garden?
As always, let me know in the poll below what you would like to see next and stay tuned for the next Travelling Botanists blog post.
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Guest blog series by: Sophie Mogg
Manchester Museum is currently planning a brand new HLF funded South Asia exhibit and held a fantastic Big Saturday with a South Asian theme. There were plenty of wonderful experiences to be had from traditional South Asian food to Bhangracise lessons that featured throughout the museum. You can find more about the event here.
We shared some beautiful specimens from our herbarium and Materia Medica collection depicting several culturally and economically important plant species from South Asia. This blog post will focus on the beautiful beverage, tea.
Originating in China during the Tang dynasty (618-907), the practice of drinking tea quickly spread to other parts of South Asia. Camellia sinensis var. assamica is typically a small evergreen shrub that will grow on to produce a small tree if left undisturbed. Native to the state of Assam, India, this variety produces a full-bodied black tea with a malty flavour.
Within the Assam state, this variety of tea is grown on plantations operating on a separate timezone (IST +1) to the rest of India. The first harvest occurs in March, typically referred to as the first flush. The second flush producing much fuller flavoured tippy tea occurs much later in the season. Following harvesting, leaves must first must undergo several labour intensive processes involving: fermenting, curling and drying. Subsequently leaves are graded by size and shape before being exported to other countries. The bud and smaller surrounding leaves are often graded the highest, with hand-picking of these leaves being repeated every few weeks. Larger leaves are graded lower, due to their chemical composition differing to the young leaves.
Tea is not only the second-most widely consumed beverage across the world, it is also involved in the Ayurveda practice of medicine. Tea would be mixed with a variety of herbs such as rooibos, rosehips and chamomile for their medicinal benefits.
In the upcoming weeks I will be following the silk and spice trade routes from Asia to the UK so stay tuned to learn more about fantastic plants of the past and present and where you might find them. If you have any suggestions not listed below, please leave a comment!
If you would like to find further information on Camellia sinensis and the production of tea please follow the links below:
The last cake has been served and the last crumbs hoovered up. It’s been top secret, but now we can tell. Yes, we hosted a Manchester International Festival Event in the herbarium: High Tea in Wonderland. The lovely MIF staff transformed our little workspace into a world of quirk and wonder.
Before: Corridor with green boxes. An open box on the bench shows pressed plant specimens inside, in species folders
Before: plain green boxes
Before: European vascular plant collection
After: 1,000 paper mushrooms, camo netting and birch fragrance
Before: Volunteer Priscilla hard at work on a side bench
After: The same bench, piled high with MIF stuff
Before: volunteer Paddy, remounting specimens on herbarium sheets
After: granny tat, bunting and pompoms
Before: plain green boxes
After: Chef Mary-Ellen Mc Tague serving rabbit pie (no boxes because of the blow torch)
We had some lovely reviews:
Did you go down the rabbit hole? What was your favourite bit?
It is time for a new blog post: this time on the tea plant Camellia sinensis. This has been a really interesting plant to research. Thank you to Stephen Welsh (Curator of Living Cultures at the Manchester Museum) for allowing me to use some pictures from his collection.
Camellia sinensis is an evergreen shrub that can reach up to 17 metres in height, but is usually trimmed to below 2 metres when cultivated to facilitate picking of leaves. More commonly known as tea, the leaves of this bush are bright green, shiny and often hairy on the underside. It takes roughly 3 years before a new plant is ready to be harvested. However, once ready to be harvested, the leaves can be picked up to 30 times per year.
Due to the wide variety of habitats available to the plant, there are many different varieties of the tea plant. Of these varieties, there are two commonly grown today: Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (Chinese tea) and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (Assam or Indian tea). Chinese tea tends to be the hardier variety that produces small, narrow leaves used for green tea and China’s black tea. In contrast, the Indian variety possesses larger, leathery leaves that often appear to sag off the branches.
History of tea drinking
The origin of the tea plant is not clear but fossil records show that it has existed for millions of years. Tea is thought to have originated in China and ‘wild’ Camellia sinensis can be found in its forests, though these may only be relics of past cultivation. Either way, the earliest record of tea consumption is in China during the 10th century BCE. Though likely to have been originally drunk for medicinal purposes, by the 4th century ACE the art of tea drinking was deeply ingrained in Chinese culture. According to documents from the Tang dynasty, by 650 ACE Camellia sinensis was being grown in almost all of the Chinese provinces. The ritual of making a drink of tea, as well as the ability to recognise type and quality, became the height of sophisticated society. Around this time, tea was introduced to Japan for the first time by travelling Buddhist priests. It quickly spread among the elite and the Japanese tea culture soon developed. By the 12th century, all social classes in Japan drank tea.
For the most part, tea drinking remained an Eastern tradition until the 16th century. Travelling Portuguese priests and merchants were introduced to tea during their travels to China. They in turn spread Camellia sinensis to Europe and the West. The drink quickly became fashionable in Britain, though it was not widely consumed through the 17th century because it remained an expensive plant to import.
Tea smuggling became big business during over the next century as all social classes in Britain began drinking tea in large quantities. It became so lucrative that, in 1785, the British Government had to abolish tax on tea to try and eliminate the smuggling trade. They even began to break Chinese monopoly on the tea market, by mass cultivating Camellia sinensis in India and other British colonies. At first they tried to grow seeds from the Chinese variety, before discovering that there was a second type endemic to India (Camellia sinensis var. assamica). Tea steadily became more affordable and soon became a permanent fixture within British culture. By the early 18th century, Britain was consuming over nine million cups of tea per year.
Tea is now the most consumed beverage in the world, with the exception of water (Britain alone uses over 3 million tonnes per year). As a general rule, tea is divided into a number of categories based on how it is processed. There are many different social rituals (such as Japanese tea ceremonies and British tea time) associated with the plant and a vast number of different styles and additions (like milk and sugar). Flavourings and seasonings, such as chamomile and mint, can also be added to tea. Over the past decade, tea has even been used to create liqueurs and other beverages, including martinis.
Harvesting Camellia sinensis is a labour intensive process but overproduction of the plant has led to falling prices and poor wages for workers. To combat this, Fair Trade tea producers charge more for their products in order to pay suppliers a higher price, therefore providing better wages for workers.
Before the culture of drinking tea arose, Camellia sinensis was used for medicinal purposes. It is believed that as far back as prehistoric times, people have used the leaves for wound healing. The first definitive use of tea medicinally was around 5,000 years ago in ancient China. Since then, Camellia sinensis has featured heavily in traditional Chinese medicine and is used as a cure for over 200 illnesses. These include for digestive problems, fevers, paralysis, nervousness, insomnia and insect bites. The most common use for tea is as a stimulant, which is due to the caffeine content.
Caffeine makes up approximately 3% of tea’s dry weight and is included in many over-the-counter medicines. It is often combined with pain relieving remedies, like aspirin, to counteract their sedative-like effects. Camellia sinensis also contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline, which are both stimulants similar to caffeine. Theophylline is used in the treatment of a number of respiratory diseases, including asthma. Tea also possesses a number of flavonoids, which are secondary metabolites (compounds whose absence can cause long-term effects on health). These flavonoids have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.
Although not strictly an effect of Camellia sinensis, the process of making a cup of tea requires boiling water. This destroys pathogenic microorganisms, thereby preventing waterborne diseases from spreading.
Though used extensively in traditional medicines, studies into the compounds within Camellia sinensis have not conclusively shown that they have any effect against human diseases. In addition, tea does not possess any essential nutrients in a significant quantity, with the exception of manganese. Drinking tea also results in large amounts of aluminium in the human body, which has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. However, there is insufficient evidence to support this and the level of aluminium in tea is still generally regarded as safe.
For the most part, the concentrations of caffeine and other compounds in tea are considered safe. However, there can be negative side-effects if consumed in large quantities. The most common problem is that caffeine can cause headaches and anxiety. It can also inhibit iron absorption in the gut and stimulate the production of urine. Many of the undesired effects of caffeine are mitigated by other compounds, particularly antioxidants, in the tea unless consumed excessively.
When ingested in high doses, Theophylline can have more toxic effects than caffeine. These include heart problems (such as heart palpitations), insomnia and convulsions. Camellia sinensis also contains small amounts of tannins (which have been linked with cancer) and oxalate (which can cause kidney stones). However, prolonged overconsumption is required for them to reach a level that is harmful.
Other uses and interesting facts
In addition to its use as a beverage and in medicine, tea leaves have also been used as an ingredient in some food recipes and in some cosmetic products. Despite being hugely popular as a drink, Camellia sinensis is actually considered a pest species in some areas of the world. There have been reports of the tea plant spreading in Madagascan forests, dampening the regeneration of the native forests that are important lemur habitats.