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Chamomile

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by Jemma

 

Today’s blog post is going to focus on Matricaria chamomilla, which is more commonly known as chamomile or scented mayweed.

 

It is a highly aromatic shrub native to Europe and Western Asia. Chamomile grows up to 0.5 metres tall and possesses yellow daisy-like flowers that bloom in early- to mid-summer. Sometimes viewed as a weed, this plant is found near roadsides, landfills and in cultivated fields. It needs open soil to survive.

Chamomile flowers  Image taken from http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?enlarge=0000+0000+0207+0114
Chamomile flowers
Image taken from http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?enlarge=0000+0000+0207+0114

 

Medicinal uses

Chamomile has been used as far back as the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. They used it to treat fevers, digestive and menstrual problems, and as an insecticide.

 

In herbal medicine today it is used as a mild laxative, a sleep aid, an anti-inflammatory, and to treat digestive problems. In large doses, Matricaria chamomilla can cause nausea and vomiting due to small amounts of the toxin coumarin it contains, though this is extremely rare.

Herbarium sheet showing chamomile
Herbarium sheet showing chamomile

The plant has been studied extensively using pharmacological models, animal experiments and clinical tests. These studies showed that chamomile has anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxing, ulcer-protecting, bactericidal and fungicidal activity. Chamomile’s properties arise from the interaction of many different chemical compounds, such as bisabolol, chamzulene, matricin and apigenin. Bisabolol, a complex alcohol, seems to be partially responsible for the majority of chamomile’s medicinal effects. Recent studies have also reported that Matricaria chamomilla extracts could have some anti-cancer effects.

Materia Medica jar containing chamomile
Materia Medica jar containing chamomile

 

Other interesting facts

Garlands of this plant were found on Tutankhamun’s mummy along with chamomile traces being found on the body of Rameses II. Chamomile produces a strong yellow dye that has been used to dye textiles and is now a popular all-natural hair dye. Matricaria chamomilla is a relative of ragweed that can cause allergic reactions in some people.

Respect the Elder

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by Jemma

 

Elder, or Sambucus nigra, if found in woodlands and hedgerows throughout Europe, western Asia and North America. It is a short-lived shrub that can reach up to 6-9 metres tall. The plant has dark green, serrated leaves that possess a distinctive smell and flat-topped yellow-white flowers. These flowers bloom in May-July and are pollinated by insects, especially hoverflies. Following pollination, Sambucus nigra produces dark purple fruit that grow between September-October. These elderberries are mildly poisonous and grow in large clusters that often weigh down the branches of the plant.

Elderberries Image taken from https://ivynettle.wordpress.com/2010/09/07/the-year-is-turning/
Elderberries
Image taken from https://ivynettle.wordpress.com/2010/09/07/the-year-is-turning/
Sambucus nigra shrub Image taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sambucus_nigra
Sambucus nigra shrub
Image taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sambucus_nigra

Medicinal uses

For a long time Sambucus nigra has been used for a wide range of medicinal applications. It has been mentioned as far back as the Hippocratic Corpus (a collection of medical works from Ancient Greece) and Pliny (23-79 ACE), who both suggest the use of elderberry as a laxative and diuretic.

Materia Medica jar containing Elderflowers
Materia Medica jar containing Elderflowers

The flowers and fruit are still used in herbal medicine today for a wide range of remedies. They are used as a diuretic, to reduce inflammation, and to treat coughs and constipation. Sambucus nigra is also a popular flavouring agent used in laxatives.

 

Studies have shown that elderberries can be used to boost the immune system. This effect has been suggested to be caused by the high levels of anthocyanidins, which are chemical compounds that are known to stimulate the immune system, found in the berries. Other studies have suggested that the plant is effective against diabetes. Extracts from elderflower has been shown to stimulate the breakdown of glucose and increase secretion of insulin, both of which lower blood sugar levels.

 

Culinary uses

Sambucus nigra has a wide range of culinary uses, despite being toxic in its raw form. The plant contains low concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides, which are toxic, but these are destroyed by heat. Thus the elder is safe to consume after cooking. One of the primary uses of elder is the production of an anise-flavoured Italian liqueur, called Sambuca, which is made from the plants berries. Elder is also involved in the production of cordials, wines and teas. In addition, it is used to make various other products such as jams, jellies, chutneys, elderflower fritters and other baked goods.

Herbarium sheet displaying  Sambucus nigra
Herbarium sheet displaying Sambucus nigra

Other uses and interesting facts

Elder has been found in prehistoric archaeological sites across Europe. The stems were used by the ancient Greeks to make musical instruments called sambuke, whilst Native Americans used them for whistles and to make arrows. Traditionally, elder has also been included in the production of perfumes and dyes. The leaves are often used as a natural insect repellent. For a long time it was believed to be the tree from which Judas supposedly hanged himself in the Bible. However, this is unlikely since Sambucus nigra is not native to the Palestine region.

Sambuca instrument (aka sambuke) Image taken from http://www.snipview.com/q/Sambuca_(instrument)
Sambuca instrument (aka sambuke)
Image taken from http://www.snipview.com/q/Sambuca_(instrument)

Fancy a bite? – Medicinal leeches

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by Jemma

One of the most well-known animals in medicine is the leech, Hirudo medicinalis. Found over almost the whole of Europe and part of Asia, the leech has been collected from muddy freshwater pools and ditches for hundreds of years.

Fully mature leeches can reach up to 20 cm in length and are hermaphrodites that reproduce sexually. Leeches have suckers on each end, called the anterior and posterior suckers. The posterior (back) one is mainly used for leverage whilst the anterior (front) sucker has the jaw and teeth for feeding. Large adults can consume 5-15 ml in a single meal, which is about 10 times their body weight. After feeding, they can live up to a year before requiring another feed.

Anterior sucker of a leech attached and drawing blood. Image taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leech_collector
Anterior sucker of a leech attached and drawing blood.
Image taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leech_collector

After biting but before sucking out blood, Hirudo medicinalis secrete saliva containing about 60 different proteins. These include anticoagulants (such as hirudin), platelet aggregation inhibitors (to prevent clotting), anaesthetics and vasodilators (to widen blood vessels and increase blood flow).

Bloodletting was used by many ancient peoples, including the Egyptians and Greeks, and is one of the earliest known medical techniques. The first described use of leeches was in 800 BC by the ancient Indian surgeon Sushruta, who recommended their use for skin diseases and muscle pains.

Ancient Greek physicians Nicander, Hippocrates and Galen all advocated the use of bloodletting. Bloodletting was modelled on menstruation as they believed it purged women of bad humours (excess bodily fluid). The humours were blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile, and each represented air, water, earth and fire respectively. Those agreeing with this theory believed that any sickness that caused the patient’s skin to become red, such as fever and inflammation, must have been caused by too much blood in the body. Thus, removal of blood was supposed to balance the humours, allowing the body to function properly.

The four humours. Image taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humorism
The four humours.
Image taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humorism

The popularity of bloodletting rose through the centuries until it reached its peak in the early 19th century. In the 1830s, the French imported as many as 40 million leeches a year for medicinal purposes. By this time, bloodletting was used to treat almost every disease, from asthma to cholera, gangrene to epilepsy, smallpox to tuberculosis and beyond. Some of the ailments leeches were employed caused more harm than good. For example, after America’s first president George Washington developed a throat infection in 1799, he was bled for 10 hours and lost 3.75 litres of blood before dying of a throat infection.

Materia Medica jar containing two dessicated leeches
Materia Medica jar containing two dessicated leeches

The use of leeches fell drastically towards the end of the 19th century as knowledge of the bodies systems increased. However, they made a medical comeback in the 1970s. Leeches began to be used to stimulate circulation following skin grafts, particularly in finger reattachment. The therapeutic value of Hirudo medicinalis was no longer in bloodletting, but rather in the anticoagulants and anaesthetics in the saliva. Leeches are still used today but ‘mechanical leeches’ have been developed that perform the same function, though they are not yet commercially available.

Tea time!

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by Jemma

 

It is time for a new blog post: this time on the tea plant Camellia sinensis. This has been a really interesting plant to research. Thank you to Stephen Welsh (Curator of Living Cultures at the Manchester Museum) for allowing me to use some pictures from his collection.

 

Appearance

Camellia sinensis is an evergreen shrub that can reach up to 17 metres in height, but is usually trimmed to below 2 metres when cultivated to facilitate picking of leaves. More commonly known as tea, the leaves of this bush are bright green, shiny and often hairy on the underside. It takes roughly 3 years before a new plant is ready to be harvested. However, once ready to be harvested, the leaves can be picked up to 30 times per year.

A Camellia sinensis flower.  Image taken from Images taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Camellia_sinensis
A Camellia sinensis flower.
Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Camellia_sinensis

Due to the wide variety of habitats available to the plant, there are many different varieties of the tea plant. Of these varieties, there are two commonly grown today: Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (Chinese tea) and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (Assam or Indian tea). Chinese tea tends to be the hardier variety that produces small, narrow leaves used for green tea and China’s black tea. In contrast, the Indian variety possesses larger, leathery leaves that often appear to sag off the branches.

Tea leaves Images taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Camellia_sinensism
Tea leaves
Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Camellia_sinensism

 

History of tea drinking

The origin of the tea plant is not clear but fossil records show that it has existed for millions of years. Tea is thought to have originated in China and ‘wild’ Camellia sinensis can be found in its forests, though these may only be relics of past cultivation. Either way, the earliest record of tea consumption is in China during the 10th century BCE. Though likely to have been originally drunk for medicinal purposes, by the 4th century ACE the art of tea drinking was deeply ingrained in Chinese culture. According to documents from the Tang dynasty, by 650 ACE Camellia sinensis was being grown in almost all of the Chinese provinces. The ritual of making a drink of tea, as well as the ability to recognise type and quality, became the height of sophisticated society. Around this time, tea was introduced to Japan for the first time by travelling Buddhist priests. It quickly spread among the elite and the Japanese tea culture soon developed. By the 12th century, all social classes in Japan drank tea.

A tea dredger from the collection, which was probably used in the 'cha-no-yu' ceremony (tea ceremony).
A tea dredger from the collection, which was probably used in the ‘cha-no-yu’ ceremony (tea ceremony).

For the most part, tea drinking remained an Eastern tradition until the 16th century. Travelling Portuguese priests and merchants were introduced to tea during their travels to China. They in turn spread Camellia sinensis to Europe and the West. The drink quickly became fashionable in Britain, though it was not widely consumed through the 17th century because it remained an expensive plant to import.

This is the type of teapot that would be found on a Tibetan Buddhist altar. Tea, which in Tibet is mixed with yak butter and salt, is used as an offering.
This is the type of teapot that would be found on a Tibetan Buddhist altar. Tea, which in Tibet is mixed with yak butter and salt, is used as an offering.

Tea smuggling became big business during over the next century as all social classes in Britain began drinking tea in large quantities. It became so lucrative that, in 1785, the British Government had to abolish tax on tea to try and eliminate the smuggling trade. They even began to break Chinese monopoly on the tea market, by mass cultivating Camellia sinensis in India and other British colonies. At first they tried to grow seeds from the Chinese variety, before discovering that there was a second type endemic to India (Camellia sinensis var. assamica). Tea steadily became more affordable and soon became a permanent fixture within British culture. By the early 18th century, Britain was consuming over nine million cups of tea per year.

Box from Materia Medica containing Camellia sinensis tea leaves
Box from Materia Medica containing prepared Camellia sinensis tea leaves

Tea is now the most consumed beverage in the world, with the exception of water (Britain alone uses over 3 million tonnes per year). As a general rule, tea is divided into a number of categories based on how it is processed. There are many different social rituals (such as Japanese tea ceremonies and British tea time) associated with the plant and a vast number of different styles and additions (like milk and sugar). Flavourings and seasonings, such as chamomile and mint, can also be added to tea. Over the past decade, tea has even been used to create liqueurs and other beverages, including martinis.

 

Harvesting Camellia sinensis is a labour intensive process but overproduction of the plant has led to falling prices and poor wages for workers. To combat this, Fair Trade tea producers charge more for their products in order to pay suppliers a higher price, therefore providing better wages for workers.

Camellia sinensis shrubs ready for harvest
Camellia sinensis shrubs ready for harvest

 

Medicinal uses

Before the culture of drinking tea arose, Camellia sinensis was used for medicinal purposes. It is believed that as far back as prehistoric times, people have used the leaves for wound healing. The first definitive use of tea medicinally was around 5,000 years ago in ancient China. Since then, Camellia sinensis has featured heavily in traditional Chinese medicine and is used as a cure for over 200 illnesses. These include for digestive problems, fevers, paralysis, nervousness, insomnia and insect bites. The most common use for tea is as a stimulant, which is due to the caffeine content.

Materia Medica jar containing tea leaves (plus a box with more leaves)
Materia Medica jar containing prepared tea leaves (plus a box with more leaves)

Caffeine makes up approximately 3% of tea’s dry weight and is included in many over-the-counter medicines. It is often combined with pain relieving remedies, like aspirin, to counteract their sedative-like effects. Camellia sinensis also contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline, which are both stimulants similar to caffeine. Theophylline is used in the treatment of a number of respiratory diseases, including asthma. Tea also possesses a number of flavonoids, which are secondary metabolites (compounds whose absence can cause long-term effects on health). These flavonoids have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.

 

Although not strictly an effect of Camellia sinensis, the process of making a cup of tea requires boiling water. This destroys pathogenic microorganisms, thereby preventing waterborne diseases from spreading.

 

Materia Medica jar with Camellia sinensis leaves
Materia Medica jar with Camellia sinensis leaves

Though used extensively in traditional medicines, studies into the compounds within Camellia sinensis have not conclusively shown that they have any effect against human diseases.  In addition, tea does not possess any essential nutrients in a significant quantity, with the exception of manganese. Drinking tea also results in large amounts of aluminium in the human body, which has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. However, there is insufficient evidence to support this and the level of aluminium in tea is still generally regarded as safe.

 

For the most part, the concentrations of caffeine and other compounds in tea are considered safe. However, there can be negative side-effects if consumed in large quantities. The most common problem is that caffeine can cause headaches and anxiety. It can also inhibit iron absorption in the gut and stimulate the production of urine. Many of the undesired effects of caffeine are mitigated by other compounds, particularly antioxidants, in the tea unless consumed excessively.

 

Herbarium sheet for Camellia sinensis
Herbarium sheet for tea plant

When ingested in high doses, Theophylline can have more toxic effects than caffeine. These include heart problems (such as heart palpitations), insomnia and convulsions. Camellia sinensis also contains small amounts of tannins (which have been linked with cancer) and oxalate (which can cause kidney stones). However, prolonged overconsumption is required for them to reach a level that is harmful.

 

Other uses and interesting facts

In addition to its use as a beverage and in medicine, tea leaves have also been used as an ingredient in some food recipes and in some cosmetic products. Despite being hugely popular as a drink, Camellia sinensis is actually considered a pest species in some areas of the world. There have been reports of the tea plant spreading in Madagascan forests, dampening the regeneration of the native forests that are important lemur habitats.

The mysterious Miss Wigglesworth

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by Jemma

 

For the past few days I have been digging through the Museum’s annual reports from the 19th-20th century. During my search one name kept cropping up: Miss Wigglesworth. She was in every report for a long period of time so I decided to look into her.

A stack of Manchester Museum annual reports
A stack of Manchester Museum annual reports

Grace Wigglesworth was a student at Owens College from 1900 (which became The Victoria University of Manchester in 1904 and would later become the University of Manchester). She graduated with a B.Sc (Hons) in Botany in 1903 and later gained a Master’s degree in palaeobotany.

The first mention of Miss Wigglesworth in the 1903-04 report
The first mention of Miss Wigglesworth in the 1903-04 report

In 1908 she was admitted as a fellow in the Linnean Society of London, which housed (and still does) the collection and personal library of the father of modern taxonomy Carl Linnaeus. In January 1911, Wigglesworth was appointed Assistant Keeper of botany at the Manchester Museum. Assistant Keepers were in charge of curating the collections. During her time as Keeper, Wigglesworth cared and organised the museum’s collections, worked on gallery displays and lectured at the University.

Wigglesworth used record cards to keep track of the Herbarium's collections. This box contains some of those cards.
Wigglesworth used record cards to keep track of the Herbarium’s collections. This box contains some of those cards.

Wigglesworth was the second female within the Herbarium staff and held the post for 33 years. Even after she retired in 1944, Wigglesworth continued to help around the Herbarium until the 1950’s.

Voting, suffrage and dancing butterflies

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Wood anenome
Wood anemone
Enchanter's nightshade
Enchanter’s nightshade
Butterbur
Butterbur

These beautiful herbarium sheets were collected by Lydia Becker for the 1864 Botanical Competition and quite understandably she won a gold medal for them. Lydia Becker was enthusiastic about science but was frustrated by the limitations put on women at the time. Through this desire to be more involved with scientific life in the UK she became involved in wider campaigning for women’s sufferage – the right to vote. In 1860, only 60% of property-owning men over the age of 21 were allowed to vote. Lydia Becker became active in local suffrage societies and the edited a national journal; you can read an interesting account of her political life here. I particularly admire Lydia Becker as she was not only interested in women getting the vote, but had a much wider goal of equality between the sexes One highlight of her life-time of campaigning came in 1867 when a shop-keeper called Lily Maxwell was entered onto the electoral role in Chorlton in error. Lydia Becker and second lady escorted Lily Maxwell to the polling station where she was allowed to case her vote and became the first woman in the UK to do so. Her vote was later ruled illegal.

I hope Lydia Becker would have been pleased by the efforts of the artist Romuald Hazoumè to encourage everyone to make use of their hard-earned right to vote* and become a Butterfly activist……….

“To remind us all of the power of voters to topple or install politicians through the force of democracy, West African contemporary artist Romuald Hazoumè has asked the Museum to give away the butterflies from six pieces in his exhibition, Dance of the Butterflies on Election Day on May 7th. This is a fantastic and unique opportunity for visitors to own a piece of contemporary art from a leading West African artist.

We particularly want to encourage first time voters to participate, but anyone of voting age can be a butterfly activist. To participate voters simply come to the Museum on Thursday 7th May between 11am and 4pm, pledge to vote before the end of the day and crucially commit to encouraging one other person, through the gift of a butterfly, to do “something” to engage with politics – whether that be voting, joining a campaign, debating or some other political act.

All the Museum and artist ask is that they let us know what they will do and post about their gift on social media using the hashtag #DanceoftheButterflies.”

 

* Key dates in universal suffrage

1918 – All men over 21 in their county of residence gained the vote. Women over 30 who owned a property (or whose husband owned a property) gained the vote.

1929 – All women over 21 gained the vote.

1968 – Voting age lowered to 18 for both men and women.

Dance of the Butterflies Election Day 2015
Dance of the Butterflies Election Day 2015

 

A history of coffee

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by Jemma

 

Appearance

Coffea Arabica is a an evergreen shrub that can reach up to 12 metres tall, though it is often trimmed to facilitate picking, and takes around 7 years to fully mature. The plant possesses foliage of broad, glossy, dark green leaves. It’s small, white flowers are not produced until 2-4 years after the shrub is planted. They are highly fragrant and often said to resemble the sweet smell of jasmine flowers. Over-flowering can lead to an inferior harvest of coffee beans, so the tree is often pruned to prevent this.

Coffea arabica with flowers in bloom. Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coffea_arabica
Coffea arabica with flowers in bloom.
Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coffea_arabica
Coffea arabica flowers.  Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coffea_arabica
Coffea arabica flowers.
Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coffea_arabica

Once Coffea Arabic reaches around 4-6 years old it begins to produce berries. These oval-shaped berries are drupes, meaning that they have a fleshy exterior surrounding the seeds. Most berries contain 2 seeds, which are frequently called coffee beans. It takes approximately 7-9 months before the berries ripen from green to yellow to red in colour. Since the berries can ripen at different times, it is possible for a single tree to possess both ripe and unripe fruit at the same time. For this reason, hand harvesting is vital for collecting good quality beans. After the plant begins to produce fruit, it can stay productive for over 30 years.

Ripe and unripe Coffea arabica berries. Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coffea_arabica
Ripe and unripe Coffea arabica berries.
Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coffea_arabica

History

The origin of Coffea Arabica is unclear, although it is believed that the plant was the first species of the genus Coffea to be cultivated for its beans. According to legend, cultivation began in Ethiopia after goats were seen mounting each other. Apparently they had become energetic after eating the leaves and fruit of the coffee tree. An herbal tea made from the plants leaves is still drunk in Ethiopia today.

Coffee beans Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coffea_arabica
Coffee beans
Image taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Coffea_arabica

Early uses of the fruit did not actually involve the beans being drunk by themselves. African tribes originally crushed ripened berries and then mixed with animal fat, which allowed them to shape the mixture into balls that could be carried into battle for energy. Any early drinks would have probably been made with the juice of fermented berries rather than the beans themselves.

 

Coffee beans were soon exported to Yemen, who began to cultivate Coffea Arabica and spread the plant throughout Arabia. Coffee similar to how it is drunk today, i.e. with the plant’s beans, started to be served in coffeehouses by the middle of the 15th century. Coffee was then traded with Venetian merchants, who in turn introduced it to the European market. The drink steadily grew popular in Europe and in 1645 Venice opened its first coffeehouse.

Kahvihuone

At first, Arabs tried to keep monopoly on coffee trade. They boiled or dried any beans that were to be exported so as to prevent the seeds from germinating. However, their attempts were unsuccessful. Smugglers soon took seeds that had not been treated from the region and grew them elsewhere, particularly in India and Sri Lanka. Soon Dutch plantations in Java overtook the Arab nations as the leading exporter of coffee.

Materia Medica jar containing Coffea arabica beans
Materia Medica jar containing Coffea arabica beans

To distinguish between the competing beans, Arabian coffee was called Mocha (after the port on the Red Sea from where it was shipped) and beans from Dutch plantations became known as Java coffee. A drink that included both types of beans was, therefore, called Mocha Java. The Dutch managed to dominate the coffee market until the mid-19th century, when plant diseases and political disturbances ended their monopoly. However, trade continued from other plantations that had already become established around the world. The most notable was Brazil, which soon became the primary exporter of the bean.

 

There was a dark side associated with the high demand for coffee: its role in the slave trade. Between 1511 and 1886, millions of Africans were sold as slaves. Though they were primarily used as labourers in the sugar industry, a large number of slaves were used for the cultivation of C. Arabica. The use of slaves meant that, despite it being a labour intensive plant to harvest, coffee prices remained relatively low.

 

Today, the plant is still tended and harvested by hand. It has become an immensely important industry that employs around 30 million people worldwide. Coffee is now one of the world’s most popular beverages and is drunk is almost every country.

Dried coffee berries in small Materia Medica jar
Dried coffee berries in small Materia Medica jar

There are two species of coffee plant that are commercially grown: Coffea Arabica and Coffea robusta. Arabica is the more subtle of the two as it contains less caffeine. It is also the more expensive variety that accounts for around 75% of the world’s coffee production. The higher caffeine content in robusta gives it a harsher and bitter flavour compared to Arabica.