Safflower

Saffron: the world’s most expensive spice (Part 2)

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by Jemma

This two-part blog post has looked at Crocus sativus, also known as saffron. Part 1 focused on the plant’s history in Europe (https://herbologymanchester.wordpress.com/2015/04/27/saffron-the-worlds-most-expensive-spice-part-1/). Part 2 will now focus on its genetics, harvest and uses.

 

Appearance

Saffron is a species of autumn-flowering plant that can grow up to 20-30 cm and produces around 4 flowers. These light- to dark-purple flowers each possess 3 bright crimson stigmas from which the spice saffron is obtained.

Saffron flowers.  Image taken from http://www.herbalencounter.com/2010/12/07/medicinal-spices-saffron-crocus-sativus/
Saffron flowers.
Image taken from http://www.herbalencounter.com/2010/12/07/medicinal-spices-saffron-crocus-sativus/

Genetics

Crocus sativus is a monomorphic clone, which means that almost every saffron plant is identical both physically and genetically. It is unknown in the wild and probably descends from Crocus cartwrightianus (also known as ‘wild saffron’), though Crocus thomasii and Crocus pallasii have also been suggested as saffron precursors. The species sativus probably arose through extensive selective breeding by growers after longer stigmas during Bronze Age Crete.

Crocus cartwrightianus - the plant from which the saffron crocus might be descended  Image taken from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Crocus_cartwrightianus
Crocus cartwrightianus – the plant from which the saffron crocus might be descended
Image taken from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Crocus_cartwrightianus

The saffron crocus is a triploid (possess 3 sets of each chromosome) that is male sterile and incapable of reproduction. Thus, the majority of propagation of Crocus sativus takes place by asexual reproduction.

 

Harvest

As mentioned previously, the plants crimson stigmas are the source of the popular spice. Due to the few produced per plant and the difficulty involved in manually extracting the minute stigmas, the saffron spice is the world’s most expensive spice by weight. Large quantities of flowers are required in order for marketable amount of saffron to be produced. Approximately 75,000 flowers, which give around 225,000 stigmas, are required to obtain a single pound (0.5 kg) of the spice. Each of these stigmas must be collected by hand and then immediately dried to prevent decomposition or mould from damaging them.

 

Medicinal uses

For as long as it has been cultivated by Homo sapiens, the saffron crocus has been used extensively for medicinal purposes. Even the paintwork by the Minoans hinted at the possibility of its use as a drug. Ancient Egyptian healers used Crocus sativus to treat a wide range of gastrointestinal problems; from stomach ache to internal bleeding. They also viewed it as an aphrodisiac, poison antidote and cure for measles. Alexander the Great was noted for having baths with saffron to help heal wounds after a battle. With its medieval revival, the medicinal uses of the crocus increased further. It was used to treat everything from coughs to smallpox, insomnia to heart diseases, and from stomach ache to gout. Saffron was even believed to be able to cure the Black Death.

Materia Medica jar containing saffron.
Materia Medica jar containing saffron.

Today, saffron is still used frequently in both alternative and modern medicine. Crocus sativus is included in the hematoxylin-phloxine-saffron (HPS) stain and Movat’s pentachrome stain, both of which are tissue stains used to make structures more visible under a microscope. This is because saffron stains collagen (most abundant protein and the main structural protein) yellow.

A tissue sample stained with HPS stain. Collagen is dyed yellow whilst muscle and cytoplasm are both pink. Image taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HPS_stain
A tissue sample stained with HPS stain. Collagen is dyed yellow whilst muscle and cytoplasm are both pink. Image taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HPS_stain

Use as a dye

For millennia saffron has been used to colour textiles and other items. It was traditionally reserved for nobles, political elites and important religious figures to emphasise their social standing. Even in small amounts, the sativus stamens produced a bright yellow-orange dye but with increasing amounts of saffron used, a richer shade of red was achieved. This led to these richer shades indicating those who were of particular importance. However, saffron is an unstable colouring agent over long periods of time, resulting in the vibrant colours to fade quickly. Over time there have been numerous attempts to replace saffron with a cheaper dye. Crocin, the main chemical in saffron that imparts the colour, has been discovered in other plants and is now extracted cheaper and easier from species in the Gardenia genus.

 

Culinary uses

Another use for saffron that dates back thousands of years is for cooking. A popular addition worldwide, saffron imparts a bright yellow-orange hue onto dishes and is included in everything from curies and soups to cheeses and baked goods. It is also sometimes added to liquors for flavour and colour. However, due to its high price, saffron is often substituted or combined with other spices in order to reduce the cost. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) are the most common replacements as they mimic the colour imparted by saffron. Though they can produce a similar colour to the pricey Crocus sativus spice neither safflower nor turmeric can replicate its distinctive taste (which is mainly due to the compound picrocrocin).

Safflower is sometimes used as a cheaper alternative to saffron
Safflower is sometimes used as a cheaper alternative to saffron

Other uses

In addition to the uses mentioned already, saffron was also a popular ingredient in perfumes in ancient Greece and Rome. They also included Crocus sativus in cosmetics, wine and potpourri. It was even considered a worthy offering for the gods. Queen Cleopatra of Egypt added saffron to her bathwater as she considered it an aphrodisiac.

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Botany in Ancient Egypt – Part 2

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by Jemma

 

Part 1 of this blog post (https://herbologymanchester.wordpress.com/2015/03/17/botany-in-ancient-egypt-part-1/) focused primarily on how the ancient Egyptians acquired their extensive botanical knowledge. This second blog post will now look more closely at some of the plants that they commonly used – some of which you may know!

An Egyptian mummy wrapped in garlands of unidentified plants.
An Egyptian mummy wrapped in garlands of unidentified plants.

 

Papyrus

One of the most well-known plants associated with ancient Egypt is Cyperus papyrus. The most famous use for this plant was to make an early form of paper. However, papyrus was used by the Egyptians for multiple purposes and was not limited solely to the production of paper. Other common uses of papyrus include the production of ropes, mats, baskets, sandals and chairs. The plant was also used to hold together bouquets of flowers and eaten as food. The open head of a papyrus plant was also a hieroglyph called ‘wadj’, meaning ‘green’, or ‘to be renewed’.

An amulet in the form of the ‘wadj’ hieroglyph. On top of the papyrus plant, there is a falcon head, representing the god Horus or the sun-god Ra. Suspension hole at the back, for stringing.
An amulet in the form of the ‘wadj’ hieroglyph. On top of the papyrus plant, there is a falcon head, representing the god Horus or the sun-god Ra. Suspension hole at the back, for stringing.
A fragment of a pottery vase that depicts a papyrus plant.
A fragment of a pottery vase that depicts a papyrus plant.

 

safflower

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a brightly coloured flowering plant that has heads of yellow, orange or red. From these colourful flowers, different coloured dyes can be extracted. Twelfth dynasty (1991-1803 BC) Egyptian textiles used these dyes to colour fabrics a red, yellow and orange colour. The dyes were sometimes even used on mummy wrappings to give them colour. It wasn’t only the flower’s dye that was used by the ancient Egyptians. Seeds from the flower have been found in temple offerings. Safflower garlands have been found sewn onto both papyrus and cloth wrapped around the mummies. These garlands were found in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Oil derived from safflower seeds was also used for medicinal purposes as a means to treat insect and scorpion bites.

A Materia Medica jar containing safflower
A Materia Medica jar containing safflower
Mummy wrappings. Some wrappings found have been dyed bright colours using safflower.
Mummy wrappings. Some wrappings found have been dyed bright colours using safflower.

 

juniper

Ancient Egyptian tombs often contained baskets of juniper berries (Juniperus communis). Oil from the berries was used for anointing the body during the mummification process. The plant was not only used with the dead as both Egyptian cosmetics and medicine sometimes contained J. communis. Juniper was employed medicinally in the treatment of headaches, asthma, indigestion and aching joints.

A Materia Medica jar containing juniper berries
A Materia Medica jar containing juniper berries
A box found at Kahun (c. 1800 BC) that contains juniper berries
A box found at Kahun (c. 1800 BC) that contains juniper berries (with lid)
A box found at Kahun (c. 1800 BC) that contains juniper berries
A box found at Kahun (c. 1800 BC) that contains juniper berries (without lid)

 

garlic

Allium sativum, commonly called garlic, was used for both culinary and medicinal purposes by the Egyptians. It was used to treat a range of problems, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Garlic also featured in many dishes and it has been estimated that 1 ½ million lb (680,000 kg) to feed the slaves and workers building the pyramids at Giza. It appears that the ancient Egyptians revered the plant as images and sculptures have been found in many tombs, including that if Pharaoh Tutankhamen.

 

poppy

Believed to have been made by the god Thoth, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) was used medicinally as an early form of painkiller and in cooking to add flavour to baked goods like bread. (For a more detailed history of the opium poppy check out my blog post https://herbologymanchester.wordpress.com/2015/01/23/powerful-poppies/ ).

Pressed poppy flowers from Europe
Pressed poppy flowers from Europe

 

castor

Ricinus communis (castor oil plant) was used extensively by the Egyptians; being employed as lamp oil, anointing oil and in medicine. The Ebers Papyrus, a medicinal text from ancient Egypt, has a whole section dedicated to the plant and its derivatives (particularly the oil). Castor oil extracted from the seeds was said to cure stomach illnesses, constipation, skin diseases, head-lice and hair restorer. They also believed that the oil was an effective treatment for treating diseases caused by demons.

A Materia Medica jar containing castor beans
A Materia Medica jar containing castor beans

I hope you have enjoyed this post and a huge thank you Campbell Price (the museum’s Curator of Egypt and Sudan) for all your help with this post! Check out Campbell’s Egypt blog at https://egyptmanchester.wordpress.com/ for more fascinating posts about ancient Egypt!